mail archive of the barebox mailing list
 help / color / mirror / Atom feed
From: Ahmad Fatoum <a.fatoum@pengutronix.de>
To: barebox@lists.infradead.org
Cc: Ahmad Fatoum <a.fatoum@pengutronix.de>
Subject: [PATCH v2 11/13] test: add emulate.pl, a runner for barebox on emulated targets
Date: Mon, 31 May 2021 08:55:18 +0200
Message-ID: <20210531065520.12385-12-a.fatoum@pengutronix.de> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <20210531065520.12385-1-a.fatoum@pengutronix.de>

This script is a wrapper around tuxmake, qemu and labgrid-pytest.

It parses the same YAML files, labgrid-pytest uses and instructs
tuxmake to build and collect the needed images.

By default, it will start an interactive emulator session, but with
--test, it can also run labgrid-pytest instead.

The script has some knowledge of QEMU options to make common tasks like
passing images straight-forward.

Script is written with both manual use and CI in mind.

Signed-off-by: Ahmad Fatoum <a.fatoum@pengutronix.de>
---
 Documentation/boards/emulated.rst |  70 ++++
 test/emulate.pl                   | 509 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 test/kconfig/base.cfg             |   0
 test/kconfig/full.cfg             |   0
 4 files changed, 579 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/boards/emulated.rst
 create mode 100755 test/emulate.pl
 create mode 100644 test/kconfig/base.cfg
 create mode 100644 test/kconfig/full.cfg

diff --git a/Documentation/boards/emulated.rst b/Documentation/boards/emulated.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..37f5038560a6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/boards/emulated.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,70 @@
+Emulated targets
+================
+
+Some targets barebox runs on are virtualized by emulators like QEMU, which
+allows basic testing of barebox functionality without the actual hardware.
+
+Generic DT image
+----------------
+
+Supported for ARM and RISC-V. It generates a barebox image that can
+be booted with the Linux kernel booting convention, which makes
+it suitable to be passed as argument to the QEMU ``-kernel`` option.
+The device tree is either the QEMU internal device tree or a device
+tree supplied by QEMU's ``-dtb`` option. The former can be very useful
+with :ref:`virtio_sect`, because QEMU will fix up the virtio mmio
+regions into the device tree and barebox will discover the devices
+automatically, analogously to what it does with VirtIO over PCI.
+
+test/emulate.pl
+---------------
+
+The ``emulate.pl`` script shipped with barebox can be used to easily
+start VMs. It reads a number of YAML files in ``test/``, which describe
+some virtualized targets that barebox is known to run on.
+Controlled by command line options, these targets are built with
+tuxmake if available and loaded into the emulator for either interactive
+use or for automated testing with Labgrid ``QEMUDriver``.
+
+.. _tuxmake: https://pypi.org/project/tuxmake/
+.. _Labgrid: https://labgrid.org
+
+Install dependencies for interactive use::
+
+  cpan YAML::Tiny # or use e.g. libyaml-tiny-perl on debian
+  pip3 install tuxmake # optional
+
+Example usage::
+
+  # Switch to barebox source directory
+  cd barebox
+
+  # emulate ARM virt with an image built by vexpress_defconfig
+  ARCH=arm ./test/emulate.pl virt@vexpress_defconfig
+
+  # build all MIPS targets known to emulate.pl and exit
+  ARCH=mips ./test/emulate.pl --no-emulate
+
+The script can also be used with a precompiled barebox tree::
+
+  # Switch to build directory
+  export KBUILD_OUTPUT=build
+
+  # run a barebox image built outside tuxmake with an emulated vexpress-ca15
+  ARCH=x86 ./test/emulate.pl efi_defconfig --no-tuxmake
+
+  # run tests instead of starting emulator interactively
+  ARCH=x86 ./test/emulate.pl efi_defconfig --no-tuxmake --test
+
+``emulate.pl`` also has some knowledge on paravirtualized devices::
+
+  # Run target and pass a block device (here /dev/virtioblk0)
+  ARCH=riscv ./test/emulate.pl --blk=rootfs.ext4 virt64_defconfig
+
+``emulate.pl`` if needed command line options can be passed directly
+to the emulator/``pytest`` as well by placing them behind ``--``::
+
+  # appends -device ? to the command line. Add -n to see the final result
+  ARCH=riscv ./test/emulate.pl virt64_defconfig -- -device ?
+
+For a complete listing of options run ``./test/emulate.pl -h``.
diff --git a/test/emulate.pl b/test/emulate.pl
new file mode 100755
index 000000000000..6eb166ee1111
--- /dev/null
+++ b/test/emulate.pl
@@ -0,0 +1,509 @@
+#!/usr/bin/env perl
+# SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0
+# Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmad Fatoum
+
+use strict;
+use warnings;
+
+use Cwd;
+use File::Basename;
+use File::Spec;
+use File::Temp 'tempdir';
+use Getopt::Long;
+use List::Util 'first';
+use Pod::Usage;
+use YAML::Tiny;
+
+my @QEMU_INTERACTIVE_OPTS = qw(-serial mon:stdio -trace file=/dev/null);
+
+my %targets;
+
+for my $arch (glob dirname(__FILE__) . "/*/") {
+    for my $cfg (glob "$arch/*.yaml") {
+	my $linkdest = readlink $cfg // '';
+
+	my $yaml = YAML::Tiny->read($cfg);
+
+	defined $yaml && exists $yaml->[0]{targets} && exists $yaml->[0]{targets}{main}
+	    or die "Invalid structure for $cfg\n";
+
+	my $path = File::Spec->abs2rel($cfg, getcwd);
+	$cfg = basename($cfg);
+	$cfg =~ s/\.yaml$//;
+	$linkdest =~ s{^.*?([^/]+)\.yaml$}{$1};
+
+	$targets{basename $arch}{$cfg} = $yaml->[0]{targets}{main};
+	$targets{basename $arch}{$cfg}{path} = $path;
+	$targets{basename $arch}{$cfg}{tools} = $yaml->[0]{tools};
+	$targets{basename $arch}{$cfg}{images} = $yaml->[0]{images};
+	$targets{basename $arch}{$cfg}{alias} = $linkdest if $linkdest && $linkdest ne $cfg;
+    }
+}
+
+my %arch_aliases = (arm64 => 'arm', x86_64 => 'x86', i386 => 'x86', um => 'sandbox');
+
+my ($dryrun, $help, @blks, $rng, $list, $shell, $runtime, @kconfig_add, $artifacts);
+my ($tuxmake, $emulate, $clean, $extraconsoles, $test) = (1, 1, 1, 0, 0);
+my ($kconfig_base, $kconfig_full) = (1, 0);
+
+my @OPTS;
+
+if (defined (my $idx = first { $ARGV[$_] eq '--' } 0 .. @ARGV - 1)) {
+    @OPTS = splice @ARGV, 1 + $idx;
+}
+
+GetOptions(
+	'help|?|h' => \$help,
+	'dryrun|n' => \$dryrun,
+	'list|l' => \$list,
+	'tuxmake!' => \$tuxmake,
+	'artifacts=s' => \$artifacts,
+	'runtime=s' => \$runtime,
+	'blk=s@' => \@blks,
+	'console+' => \$extraconsoles,
+	'rng' => \$rng,
+	'emulate!' => \$emulate,
+	'clean!' => \$clean,
+	'shell' => \$shell,
+	'kconfig-base!' => \$kconfig_base,
+	'kconfig-full!' => \$kconfig_full,
+	'kconfig-add|K=s@' => \@kconfig_add,
+	'test' => \$test,
+) or pod2usage(2);
+pod2usage(1) if $help;
+
+my @ARCH = split /\s/, $ENV{ARCH} // '';
+@ARCH = @ARCH ? @ARCH : keys %targets;
+
+my $success = 0;
+
+for my $arch (@ARCH) {
+	my @targets = @ARGV ? @ARGV : keys %{$targets{$arch}};
+	@targets != 1 && !$tuxmake
+		and die "can't use --no-tuxmake with more than one config\n";
+
+	unless (defined $targets{$arch}) {
+		die "Unknown ARCH=$arch. Supported values:\n",
+		join(', ', keys %targets), "\n";
+	}
+
+	for my $config (@targets) {
+	        $arch = $arch_aliases{$arch} // $arch;
+
+		$config = fileparse($config, ".yaml");
+
+		unless (defined $targets{$arch}{$config}) {
+		    next;
+		}
+
+		if ($list) {
+		    print "ARCH=$arch $config\n";
+		    $success += 1;
+		    next;
+		}
+
+		if (defined $targets{$arch}{$config}{alias}) {
+		    next if grep { /^$targets{$arch}{$config}{alias}$/ } @targets;
+		    $config = $targets{$arch}{$config}{alias};
+		    redo;
+		}
+
+		print "# $config\n" if $dryrun;
+		$success += process($arch, $config);
+	}
+}
+
+$success > 0
+	or die "No suitable config found. $0 -l to list all built-in.\n";
+
+sub process {
+	my ($ARCH, $defconfig, %keys) = @_;
+	my $target = $targets{$ARCH}{$defconfig};
+
+	if (!exists ($target->{runner}{tuxmake_arch})) {
+	    $target->{runner}{tuxmake_arch} = $ARCH;
+	}
+
+	my $dir;
+
+	$dir = tempdir("bareboxbuild-XXXXXXXXXX", TMPDIR => 1, CLEANUP => $clean);
+	report('mkdir', $dir);
+
+	my %opts = (
+	    target => $target, builddir => $tuxmake ? $dir : getcwd,
+	    defconfig => $defconfig,
+	    extra_opts => [map { s/\{config\}/$defconfig/gr  } @OPTS],
+	);
+
+	build(%opts) if $tuxmake;
+
+	while (my ($k, $v) = each %{$target->{runner}{download}}) {
+	    if ($v =~ m{^[/.]}) {
+		symlink_force($v, "$dir/$k");
+	    } else {
+		vsystem('curl', '-L', '--create-dirs', '-o', "$dir/$k", $v) == 0
+		    or die "Failed to download resource `$v': $?\n";
+	    }
+
+	    symlink_force("$dir/$k", "$k") unless $tuxmake;
+	}
+
+	if ($shell) {
+		pushd($dir);
+		system($ENV{SHELL} // "/bin/sh");
+		popd();
+	}
+
+	return 1 unless $emulate;
+
+	if ($tuxmake) {
+	    $ENV{KBUILD_OUTPUT} = $dir;
+	    print "export KBUILD_OUTPUT=$ENV{KBUILD_OUTPUT}\n" if $dryrun;
+	}
+
+	my $success = $test ? test(%opts) : emulate(%opts);
+
+        report("rm", "-rd", $dir) if $clean && $tuxmake;
+
+	print "\n\n" if $dryrun;
+	return $success;
+}
+
+sub build {
+    my %args = @_;
+    my ($runner, $dir) = ($args{target}{runner}, $args{builddir});
+
+    $args{defconfig} =~ s/[^@]+@//g;
+
+    my @TUXMAKE_ARGS = ('-a', $runner->{tuxmake_arch}, '-k', $args{defconfig});
+
+    if (defined $runner->{kconfig_add}) {
+	for my $cfg (@{$runner->{kconfig_add}}) {
+	    push @TUXMAKE_ARGS, "--kconfig-add=$cfg"
+	}
+    }
+
+    push @TUXMAKE_ARGS, "--kconfig-add=test/kconfig/base.cfg" if $kconfig_base || $kconfig_full;
+    push @TUXMAKE_ARGS, "--kconfig-add=test/kconfig/full.cfg" if $kconfig_full;
+
+    for (@kconfig_add) {
+	push @TUXMAKE_ARGS, "--kconfig-add=$_";
+    }
+
+    push @TUXMAKE_ARGS, "--runtime=$runtime" if $runtime;
+
+    vsystem('tuxmake', @TUXMAKE_ARGS, '-b', $dir, '-o',
+	$artifacts // "$dir/artifacts", 'default') == 0
+	or die "Error building: $?\n";
+}
+
+sub emulate {
+    my %args = @_;
+    my %target = %{$args{target}};
+    my @OPTS = @{$args{extra_opts}};
+
+    if (defined $target{drivers}{QEMUDriver}) {
+	    my %qemu = %{$target{drivers}{QEMUDriver}};
+	    my ($kernel, $bios, $dtb);
+	    my $qemu_virtio;
+	    my $i;
+
+	    $kernel = abs_configpath($qemu{kernel}, \%args);
+	    $bios   = abs_configpath($qemu{bios},   \%args);
+	    $dtb    = abs_configpath($qemu{dtb},    \%args);
+
+	    my @cmdline = ($target{tools}{$qemu{qemu_bin}},
+		'-M', $qemu{machine}, '-cpu', $qemu{cpu}, '-m', $qemu{memory});
+
+	    push @cmdline, '-kernel', $kernel if defined $kernel;
+	    push @cmdline, '-bios', $bios if defined $bios;
+	    push @cmdline, '-dtb',  $dtb if defined $dtb;
+
+	    push @cmdline, @QEMU_INTERACTIVE_OPTS;
+	    for (split /\s/, $qemu{extra_args}) {
+		push @cmdline, $_;
+	    }
+
+	    if (has_feature(\%target, 'virtio-pci')) {
+		    $qemu_virtio = 'pci,disable-legacy=on,disable-modern=off';
+		    push @{$target{features}}, 'pci';
+		    push @{$target{features}}, 'virtio';
+	    } elsif (has_feature(\%target, 'virtio-mmio')) {
+		    $qemu_virtio = 'device';
+		    push @{$target{features}}, 'virtio';
+	    }
+
+	    $i = 0;
+	    for my $blk (@blks) {
+		if (has_feature(\%target, 'virtio')) {
+		    $blk = rel2abs($blk);
+		    push @cmdline,
+		    '-drive', "if=none,file=$blk,format=raw,id=hd$i",
+		    '-device', "virtio-blk-$qemu_virtio,drive=hd$i";
+		} else {
+		    die "--blk unsupported for target\n";
+		}
+	    }
+
+	    # note that barebox doesn't yet support multiple virtio consoles
+	    if ($extraconsoles) {
+		$i = 0;
+
+		if (defined $qemu_virtio) {
+		    push @cmdline,
+		    '-device', "virtio-serial-$qemu_virtio",
+		    '-chardev', "pty,id=virtcon$i",
+		    '-device', "virtconsole,chardev=virtcon$i,name=console.virtcon$i";
+
+		    $i++;
+		}
+
+		if ($i < $extraconsoles) {
+		    # ns16550 serial driver only works with x86 so far
+		    if (has_feature(\%target, 'pci')) {
+			for (; $i < $extraconsoles; $i++) {
+			    push @cmdline,
+			    '-chardev', "pty,id=pcicon$i",
+			    '-device', "pci-serial,chardev=pcicon$i";
+			}
+		    } else {
+			warn "barebox currently supports only a single extra virtio console\n";
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+
+	    if (defined $rng) {
+		if (has_feature(\%target, 'virtio')) {
+		    push @cmdline, '-device', "virtio-rng-$qemu_virtio";
+		} else {
+		    die "--rng unsupported for target\n";
+		}
+	    }
+
+	    pushd($args{builddir}) if $tuxmake;
+
+	    vsystem(@cmdline, @OPTS) == 0 or die "Error running emulator: $?\n";
+
+    } elsif (defined $target{drivers}{TinyEMUDriver}) {
+	    my %temu = %{$target{drivers}{TinyEMUDriver}};
+	    my $TEMU_CFG;
+	    my $i = 0;
+
+	    if (exists $temu{config}) {
+		$temu{config} = rel2abs($temu{config});
+		open(my $fh, '<', "$temu{config}")
+		    or die "Could not open file '$temu{config}': $!";
+		$TEMU_CFG = do { local $/; <$fh> };
+	    }
+
+	    print ("$temu{config}\n");
+
+	    defined $TEMU_CFG or die "Unknown tinyemu-config\n";
+
+	    open(my $fh, '>', "$args{builddir}/tinyemu.cfg")
+		or die "Could not create file 'tinyemu.cfg': $!";
+	    print $fh $TEMU_CFG;
+	    print "cat >'tinyemu.cfg' <<EOF\n$TEMU_CFG\nEOF\n" if $dryrun;
+
+	    for my $blk (@blks) {
+		$blk = rel2abs($blk);
+		$TEMU_CFG =~ s[\}(?!.*\})][drive$i: { file: "$blk" },\n}]ms
+	    }
+
+	    die "--console unsupported for target\n" if $extraconsoles;
+	    die "--rng unsupported for target\n" if defined $rng;
+
+	    pushd($args{builddir}) if $tuxmake;
+
+	    vsystem($temu{temu_bin}, "tinyemu.cfg", @OPTS) == 0
+		or die "Error running emulator: $?\n";
+    } elsif (defined $target{drivers}{NativeExecutableDriver}) {
+	    my %exec = %{$target{drivers}{NativeExecutableDriver}};
+
+	    pushd($args{builddir}) if $tuxmake;
+
+	    vsystem($exec{command}, @OPTS) == 0 or die "Error running emulator: $?\n";
+    }
+
+    popd() if $tuxmake;
+
+    return 1;
+}
+
+sub test {
+    my %args = @_;
+    my @OPTS = @{$args{extra_opts}};
+    my $pytest;
+    my $dir;
+
+    unless (defined $args{target}{drivers}{QEMUDriver}) {
+	warn "$args{target}{path}: Skipping test, no QEMUDriver\n";
+	return 0;
+    }
+
+    $pytest = `sh -c 'command -v labgrid-pytest'` ? 'labgrid-pytest' : 'pytest';
+
+    vsystem($pytest, '--lg-env', "$args{target}{path}", "test/py",
+	'--lg-log', @OPTS) == 0 or die "Error running 'labgrid-pytest': $?\n";
+
+    return 1;
+}
+
+sub has_feature {
+    defined first { lc($_) eq $_[1] } @{$_[0]->{features}}
+}
+
+sub report {
+    print join(' ', map { /\s/ ? "'$_'" : $_  } @_), "\n" if $dryrun;
+    0;
+}
+
+sub vsystem {
+    if ($dryrun) {
+	return report(@_);
+    } else {
+	my $ret = system @_;
+	warn "vsystem: $!\n" if $ret == -1;
+	return $ret >> 8;
+    }
+}
+
+sub rel2abs {
+    File::Spec->rel2abs(@_)
+}
+
+sub abs_configpath {
+    my ($path, $args) = @_;
+    my $LG_BUILDDIR;
+
+    return unless defined $path;
+    $path = $args->{target}{images}{$path};
+    return unless defined $path;
+
+    if (exists $ENV{KBUILD_OUTPUT}) {
+	$LG_BUILDDIR = $ENV{KBUILD_OUTPUT};
+    } elsif (-d 'build') {
+	$LG_BUILDDIR = 'build';
+    } else {
+	$LG_BUILDDIR = getcwd();
+    }
+
+    $path =~ s/\$LG_BUILDDIR\b/$LG_BUILDDIR/g;
+
+    return rel2abs($path, $args->{builddir})
+}
+
+sub symlink_force {
+    unlink($_[1]);
+    symlink($_[0], $_[1]);
+}
+
+my @oldcwd;
+
+sub pushd {
+	my ($old, $new) = (getcwd, shift);
+	report ("pushd", $new);
+	push @oldcwd, $old;
+	chdir $new;
+	return $old;
+};
+
+sub popd {
+	report("popd");
+	chdir pop(@oldcwd)
+};
+
+__END__
+
+=head1 NAME
+
+emulate.pl - Build and run barebox under an emulator
+
+=head1 SYNOPSIS
+
+[ARCH=arch] emulate.pl [options] [defconfigs...] [--] [qemu/pytest-opts]
+
+=head1 OPTIONS
+
+Must be run from either barebox source or build directory.
+
+=over 8
+
+=item B<-?>, B<-h>, B<--help>
+
+Print a help message and exits
+
+=item B<-n>, B<--dryrun>
+
+Print commands and exit
+
+=item B<-l>, B<--list>
+
+Filter input with list of known targets
+
+=item B<--no-tuxmake>
+
+Don't rerun tuxkmake. Assumes current working directory is finished build directory
+
+=item B<--artifacts>=%s
+
+Destination directory for the tuxmake artifacts. By default, this is
+the artifacts/ subdirectory in the temporary build directory and is
+not persisted (unless --no-clean is specified).
+
+=item B<--blk>=%s
+
+Pass block device to emulated barebox. Can be specified more than once
+
+=item B<--console>
+
+Pass one Virt I/O console to emulated barebox.
+
+=item B<--rng>
+
+instantiate Virt I/O random number generator
+
+=item B<--no-emulate>
+
+Don't emulate anything and exit directly after build
+
+=item B<--no-clean>
+
+Don't delete temporary working directory after
+
+=item B<--shell>
+
+Open shell in temporary working directory, after build, but before emulation
+
+=item B<--test>
+
+Instead of starting emulator interactively, run it under labgrid-pytest with
+the in-tree python tests.
+
+=item B<--runtime>=%s
+
+Runtime to use for the tuxmake builds. By default, builds are
+run natively on the build host.
+Supported: null, podman-local, podman, docker, docker-local.
+
+=item B<--no-kconfig-base>
+
+Don't apply test/kconfig/base.cfg. This may lead to more tests being
+skipped.
+
+=item B<--kconfig-full>
+
+Applies test/kconfig/full.cfg on top of base.cfg. This enables as much as
+possible to avoid skipping tests for disabled functionality.
+
+=item B<--kconfig_add>=%s, B<-K>=%s
+
+Extra kconfig fragments, merged on top of the defconfig and Kconfig
+fragments described by the YAML. In tree configuration fragment
+(e.g. `test/kconfig/virtio-pci.config`), path to local file, URL,
+`CONFIG_*=[y|m|n]`, or `# CONFIG_* is not set` are supported.
+Can be specified multiple times, and will be merged in the order given.
+
+=back
+
+=cut
diff --git a/test/kconfig/base.cfg b/test/kconfig/base.cfg
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e69de29bb2d1
diff --git a/test/kconfig/full.cfg b/test/kconfig/full.cfg
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e69de29bb2d1
-- 
2.29.2


_______________________________________________
barebox mailing list
barebox@lists.infradead.org
http://lists.infradead.org/mailman/listinfo/barebox


  parent reply	other threads:[~2021-05-31  6:57 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 21+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2021-05-31  6:55 [PATCH v2 00/13] add barebox in-tree testing infrastructure Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 01/13] kbuild: add install target Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 02/13] kbuild: add ARCH={i386, x86_64} as aliases for x86 Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 03/13] kbuild: add ARCH=um alias for sandbox Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 04/13] MIPS: qemu-malta: generate swapped image as part of multi-image build Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 05/13] openrisc: set default KBUILD_IMAGE Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 06/13] Documentation: boards: RISC-V: update TinyEMU support Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 07/13] test: add basic barebox self-test infrastructure Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 08/13] test: self: port Linux printf kselftest Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 09/13] test: add labgrid configs for some emulated targets Ahmad Fatoum
2021-06-02 11:27   ` Rouven Czerwinski
2021-06-02 11:34     ` Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 10/13] test: add first sample tests Ahmad Fatoum
2021-06-02 11:33   ` Rouven Czerwinski
2021-06-02 11:35     ` Ahmad Fatoum
2021-06-03 15:14       ` Jan Lübbe
2021-06-03 15:31         ` Ahmad Fatoum
2021-05-31  6:55 ` Ahmad Fatoum [this message]
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 12/13] test: self: run selftests as part of the pytest suite Ahmad Fatoum
2021-06-02 11:36   ` Rouven Czerwinski
2021-05-31  6:55 ` [PATCH v2 13/13] test: add bthread test Ahmad Fatoum

Reply instructions:

You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email
using any one of the following methods:

* Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client,
  and reply-to-all from there: mbox

  Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting:
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style

* Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to
  switches of git-send-email(1):

  git send-email \
    --in-reply-to=20210531065520.12385-12-a.fatoum@pengutronix.de \
    --to=a.fatoum@pengutronix.de \
    --cc=barebox@lists.infradead.org \
    /path/to/YOUR_REPLY

  https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html

* If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header
  via mailto: links, try the mailto: link

mail archive of the barebox mailing list

This inbox may be cloned and mirrored by anyone:

	git clone --mirror https://lore.barebox.org/barebox/0 barebox/git/0.git

	# If you have public-inbox 1.1+ installed, you may
	# initialize and index your mirror using the following commands:
	public-inbox-init -V2 barebox barebox/ https://lore.barebox.org/barebox \
		barebox@lists.infradead.org barebox@lists.infradead.org
	public-inbox-index barebox

Example config snippet for mirrors.


AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git